[12-12-2016 ] As a result of an updated review, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has concluded that use of the type 2 diabetes medicine pioglitazone (Actos, Actoplus Met, Actoplus Met XR, Duetact, Oseni) may be linked to an increased risk of bladder cancer. The labels of pioglitazone-containing medicines already contain warnings about this risk, and we have now approved label updates to describe the additional studies we reviewed.
We alerted the public about the possible risk of bladder cancer in September 2010 and June 2011 based on interim results from a 10-year epidemiologic study. We changed the labels of pioglitazone-containing medicines in August 2011 to include warnings about this risk, and required the manufacturer to modify and continue the 10-year study.
Pioglitazone is approved to improve blood sugar control, along with diet and exercise, in adults with type 2 diabetes. Pioglitazone works by increasing the body’s sensitivity to insulin, a natural hormone that helps control blood sugar levels. Untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to serious problems, including blindness, nerve and kidney damage, and heart disease.
Health care professionals should not use pioglitazone in patients with active bladder cancer, and should carefully consider the benefits and risks before using pioglitazone in patients with a history of bladder cancer.
Patients should contact their health care professionals if they experience any of the following signs or symptoms after starting pioglitazone, as these may be due to bladder cancer:
- Blood or a red color in the urine
- New or worsening urge to urinate
- Pain when urinating
We reviewed additional published studies evaluating the risk of bladder cancer in patients treated with pioglitazone. Results varied among the reviewed studies (see Data Summary). For instance, the 10-year epidemiologic study1 did not find an increased risk of bladder cancer with pioglitazone use, whereas another study did.2 In addition, a randomized controlled trial found an increased risk during the trial period;3 however the risk did not persist when patients were followed after the trial was completed.4 Furthermore, findings of these and other reviewed studies conflicted about whether the duration of use and/or total dose over time of pioglitazone influenced the risk of bladder cancer. We also previously communicated in 2010 that bladder tumors were seen with pioglitazone exposure in animal studies. Overall, the data suggest that pioglitazone use may be linked to an increased risk of bladder cancer.
We urge patients and health care professionals to report side effects involving pioglitazone or other medicines to the FDA MedWatch program, using the information in the “Contact FDA” box at the bottom of the page.